Primary testicular cancer (TC) is the most common solid cancer in men aged 20-45; rare below 15 years and above 60 years. Constituting 1-2% of all male cancers, the lifetime risk of developing testicular cancer is 1 in 500.

It is also considered the most curable cancer, even though it is increasing in incidence reported to affect 7 per 100,000 men.


The most common affected age group is 20-45 years, with germ cell tumours; teratomas are more common at ages 20-35; while seminoma is more common at ages 35-45 years.

Rarely, infants and boys below 10 years develop it. 50% of men over 60 years with testicular cancer have lymphoma.


10% of testicular cancer occur in undescended testes, the risk increases 3-14 times compared to men with normally descended testes. Ultrastructural changes are present in these testes by age 3 years, although testicular cancer.

5-10% of patients with cryptorchid testes develop malignancy in the normally descended contralateral testes.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Patients infected with the HIV virus are developing seminoma more frequently than expected.


Genes appear to play a role, given that first-degree relatives are at a higher risk, but a defined familial inheritance pattern is not apparent.

Oestrogen Ingestion

Maternal oestrogen ingestion during pregnancy increases the risk of cryptorchidism and testicular cancer in the male child.